Updated: May 30, 2023

Midges are a common type of fly found in many parts of the world. They often swarm in large numbers, making them a nuisance for outdoor enthusiasts. Understanding the life cycle of midges can help us better manage their populations and reduce their impact on our lives.

The Egg Stage

The life cycle of midges begins with the female laying her eggs. Midges typically lay their eggs in water, although some species lay them on damp soil or vegetation. The eggs are usually deposited in masses, which can contain hundreds or even thousands of individual eggs.

Once the eggs are laid, they hatch into larvae within a few days. The time it takes for the eggs to hatch depends on several factors, including the temperature of the water and the species of midge.

The Larval Stage

The larval stage is the longest phase in the life cycle of midges, lasting several weeks to several months. During this stage, the midge larvae feed on organic matter and microorganisms in the water. They are often found in stagnant or slow-moving water, such as ponds, lakes, and streams.

Midge larvae have distinct physical characteristics that make them easy to identify. They have elongated bodies with segmented heads and thoraxes. They also have a pair of prolegs at the end of their body that they use to anchor themselves to surfaces.

Midge larvae go through several molts during their development, shedding their skin as they grow. As they approach maturity, they will begin to pupate.

The Pupal Stage

The pupal stage is a transitional phase between the larval and adult stages. During this period, the midge pupa undergoes significant changes as it transforms into an adult.

Midge pupae are usually found floating near the surface of the water. They are often enclosed in a protective case or cocoon which helps to shield them from predators. The pupal stage typically lasts for several days, although this can vary depending on the species and environmental conditions.

The Adult Stage

The final stage in the life cycle of midges is the adult stage. This is when the midge emerges from its pupal case as a fully-formed adult fly. Adult midges have wings and are capable of flight, allowing them to disperse and find mates.

Midges typically mate within a few days of emerging as adults. The male midge will locate a female using chemical cues and court her before mating. Once mating is complete, the female will lay her eggs, starting the life cycle all over again.

Managing Midge Populations

Midges can be a nuisance for outdoor enthusiasts, especially when they swarm in large numbers. There are several strategies that can be used to manage midge populations and reduce their impact on our lives.

One approach is to eliminate or modify breeding habitats. This can involve draining stagnant water sources, filling in ditches or depressions where water collects, or adding aerators or fountains to ponds or lakes to increase water movement.

Another approach is to use insecticides or biological control agents to target midge larvae. Insecticides can be effective in killing midge larvae, but they can also have negative impacts on other aquatic organisms. Biological control agents, such as predatory fish or nematodes, can be used to target midge larvae specifically and are less harmful to the environment.


Understanding the life cycle of midges can help us better manage their populations and reduce their impact on our lives. By targeting midge larvae during the larval stage, we can prevent them from reaching adulthood and swarming in large numbers. By modifying breeding habitats or using insecticides or biological control agents, we can further reduce their impact on our lives. Overall, a combination of approaches is likely to be most effective in managing midge populations.